• from accidental intake of chemical or maybe injected parenterally like for example: arsenic, gold compound, chloroform,carbon tetrachloride, phosphorous, which these may leads to acute liver cirrhosis or toxic hepatitis.
Signs and Symptoms:
  • for milder case symptoms are like epidemic hepatitis
  • toxic progress to acute stage of liver cirrhosis-
  1. intense jaundice
  2. persistent vomiting with blood
  3. hemorrhage under the skin-hematoma
  4. delirium
  5. coma
  6. convulsion develop
  7. die after few days
Nursing Management:
  • emotional support
  • encourage personal hygiene to feel comfortable
  • blood transfusion, intravenous solution and saline solution as prescribed by the physician
  • few recover but still develop cirrhosis of the liver , so continue providing comfort and treatment


  • Liver serves as the strainer of the blood returning to the gastrointestinal tract. But if the abscess along the way, there is a possibility that the organisms mixes with the blood and deposited to the liver.. Bacteria organisms destroyed liver cells and leukocytes resulting an abscess of the liver.
Signs and Symptoms:
  • high fever
  • chills and cold clammy perspiration
  • jaundice
  • painful enlargement of the liver
  • anemia
  • toxemia
  • eventually death
Nursing Measures:
  • for fever- increase fluid intake, sponge bath and analgesic as prescribed by the doctor
  • make patient comfortable , encourage oral and personal hygiene
  • emotional support

Cirrhosis of the LIver

One of the deadly type of cancer now adays is cancer of the liver (Cirrhosis of the Liver ) it is called hardening of the liver. Through my research from my nursing books and what i have learned in the school , Im gonna post this disease sign and symptoms and nursing mangement.
  1. Laennec's Portal cirrhosis- due to alcoholism
  2. postnecrotic cirrhosis -scar tissue due to acute viral hepatitis
  3. biliary cirrhosis- case of chronic biliary obstruction and infection (cholangitis)
Signs and Symptoms:
  • loss of appetite
  • nausea and vomiting
  • low grade fever
  • jaundice
  • later symptoms are;
  • obstruction of portal circulation, liver cannot function,so spleen and gastrointestinal affected and apt to diarrhea and constipation
  • weight loss
  • ascitis appear
  • jaundice
  • internal hemorrhage
Nursing management :
  • careful attention to patient
  • measure intake and output and recorded daily
  • bed rest and turn side to side to avoid pneumonia and bed sores
  • diet should high protein diet supplemented by Vitamin B complex and A, C, & K
  • encourage to eat at least small 3 times a day
  • oral hygiene for nausea and vomiting
  • Increase fluid intake to replace fluid loss during diarrhea
  • jaundice should bath without soap to avoid skin irritation
  • edema should lower sodium intake and carefully record intake & output daily
  • ascitis- ristrick sodium, elevate head to facilitate breathing
  • for hemorrhage manefestation like epistaxis, petechia and bleeding gum
  • avoid trauma
  • safe environmentcareful toothbrushing to avoid trauma of the gums
  • loose clothing


Hepatitis- is an inflammation of the liver due to viral infection .
  • Due to viral infection- acquired through blood transfusion, sexual acts and contact of open wound to an infected like dental instruments or medical instrument
  • Due to obstruction of biliary tract and presence of gallstone may cause the impairment of the liver
  • Excessive taking of alcohol. usually to person who are addicted to alcohol


  • Acquire there ingestion of foods or water infected by virus
  • an infected food handlers ca spread the disease
  • acquired through eating of shellfish from sewage contaminated sea shore
  • contaminated drinking water
  • sexual contact with infected person
  • blood transfusion
Signs and Symptoms:
  • asymptomatic at the early stage
  • fatigue, anorexia nausea and vomiting, body weakness, loss of appetite
  • jaundice, amber clay colored stool, pain in the right upper quadrant
Nursing Management:
  • bed rest
  • frequent feeding or anorexia to meet the nutritional need of the body
  • offered attractive food for loss of appetite and for nausea
  • maintain good diet
  • iv fluids as per the doctors advised


  • type of hepatitis accounts for the majority of blood borne cases primarily classified as non A and non B hepatitis
Sign and Symptoms are same with Hepatitis B


  • same transmission of Hepatitis B
  • a patient is super infected that may have the greater risk of cerrhocis of the liver
Sign and Symptoms is the same with Hepatitis B

Nursing Management is same with hepatitis A,B, C

Source: my nursing student notes and medical nursing books